Black or gold ink on board or paper, some digitally manipulated

I draw without preliminary sketches, spontaneously, in ink, with no corrections. If mistakes occur, they are allowed to remain, or the drawing is discarded. For each drawing that I have retained, perhaps ten have been discarded. This practice is related to one of the basic ideas of abstract expressionism - the importance of spontaneity and subconscious influences released in the act of making art.

The drawings are generally not complete – i.e. completely filling the available space of the paper all the way to the edge. I prefer that the drawing itself calls attention to the fact that it is a sign on paper interpretable as an image, as opposed to being a "window on the world", or a "picture of" something.

I strive to make the line in each drawing identical to the subject, rather than a depicter of the subject. This is a rather subtle distinction, but I have observed it in Japanese prints, in which, for example, diagonal lines become rain or a curved line becomes a wave. It is this calling attention to the metaphorical nature of art making that I find exciting and appealing. A perfect balance between the abstract and the real is very difficult to achieve, and happens only rarely in my drawing.